The main form of business organizations are as follows:
The most common form in which to do business in Slovakia is the limited-liability company (spoločnosť s ručením obmedzeným, abbreviated to spol. s.r.o. or s.r.o.). A limited-liability company may be established by one person only (exclusively a natural person), and any natural person may be the single member in a maximum of three companies. The maximum number of members is limited to fifty. The basic statutory capital is a minimum EUR 5,000, and there must also be a contingency reserve from profits of up to 10% of the basic capital. The minimum subscription from a member is EUR 750, and the capital may be provided in cash, or in-kind equivalent (in which case an expert valuation is needed). Members are liable for the obligations of the company only to the amount of unpaid share capital.
The joint-stock company (akciová spoločnosť, abbreviated to akc. spol. or a.s.) is the typical corporate business form. It may be established by at least two persons (natural or legal) or by a single legal person. Its minimum capital is divided into shares with a nominal value, and the sum of those values is equal to the nominal capital. The minimum share capital of an a.s. is EUR 25,000. The company must establish a contingency reserve in the amount of at least 10% of the share capital. The company is obliged to make contributions to this fund annually in an amount determined in the company’s statutes, which is a minimum of 10% of net after-tax profit, until the reserve stands at the maximum amount stipulated, which may not be less than 20% of the nominal capital.
The general partnership (verejná obchodná spoločnosť, abbreviated to ver. obch. spol. or v.o.s.) is the typical personal entity established by a minimum of two persons (legal or natural) with a view to doing business together under a common business name. The partnership is liable for its obligations to the extent of all its property, while the partners guarantee the partnership’s obligations to the extent of all their property, jointly and severally. Partnerships do not have a minimum statutory capital; the partnership agreement may, however, stipulate what capital a partner may have to contribute to the partnership.
The limited partnership (komanditná spoločnosť, abbreviated to kom. spol. or k.s.) combines features of the limited-liability company and the general partnership. The partners may be natural or legal persons, and the partnership has two types of partners: general partners and limited partners; both types of partners must be present throughout the entire lifetime of the partnership.